Barnhart, Gwendolyn. “The Stigma of HIV/AIDS.” Dec. 2014

Gwendolyn Barnhart, a doctoral student claims that, “HIV/AIDS-related stigma exerts a direct negative impact on the health of those who have HIV.” In this paper she gives evidence by using quotes from psychologists and other papers directed towards the topic of AIDS to support her claims. Her purpose in writing this paper, was not only to inform readers of the different stigmas associated with HIV/AIDS but to encourage readers to honor the ones who have passed from this disease “by getting tested, using necessary precautions, and educating ourselves about the facts and not by letting bias, misconceptions, and rumors drive our actions and perceptions.” Her intended audience are well-educated people and those who may be interested in psychology. Psychologist who may have a patient with this disease may find this paper helpful to know the stigmas this person normally faces, so that the psychologist won’t put those same stigmas on him.

Throughout Barnhart’s paper she uses examples, such as Ryan White which relates to Gonzalez through their experience with the disease as teenagers. She uses Magic Johnson, which relates to Gonzalez because he was an athlete as well.  These different stigmas are things that anyone with HIV/AIDS dealt with. Everyone with the disease are dealing with the same stigmas; together.


Cargill, Victoria A., and Valerie E. Stone. HIV/AIDS: a minority health issue. July 2005.

Victoria A. Cargill  the director of Clinical Studies and Minority Research at National Institutes of Health Office of AIDS Research and Valerie E. Stone, a once director of the Womens HIV/AID program asserts that HIV infection disproportionately affects racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States. They provide readers with evidence that is displayed by giving examples of how HIV has affected these populations and informing readers just through information, there is no quantitative data. The purpose of this paper is to inform readers of the several reasons that minorities are impacted so heavily from this disease, it seems as if they want people to understand that more things go into this disease than people know. This is intended for an educated audience; students doing research, people in the medical field. Researchers or people may find this interesting if they are trying to see what all could possibly contribute to contracting this virus, because maybe they want to make sure they aren’t being put in this type of circumstances.

Gonzalez has an origin of latin descent, which in America would be considered a minority. I wanted to see if his race or ethnicity could have been a contributing factor to him having the disease. After finding papers such as this one, I realize that it may have been apart of the reason he passed from HIV. John was born into this world apart of a culture he couldn’t necessarily choose, a minority,and that may have been the very reason he passed.

Teens Are Affected Too

Markel, Howard. “Remembering Ryan White, the teen who fought against the stigma of AIDS.” 8 Apr. 2016.

Dr. Howard Markel, who is an acclaimed social and cultural historian of medicine, public health, and epidemics, informs readers that there isn’t just one specific group of people or way to contract AIDS by remembering Ryan White. Dr. Howard used things such Ryan’s experience, how Ryan contracted AIDS, and he used his, Dr. Markel, experience as a pediatrician to give more credibility to Ryan’s story. In this article, it is clear that he wants people to  disassociate the disease with specifics, because this is not a disease that discriminates; I believe he wants people to get finished reading this and not judge those who are infected because it’s not always clear how they contracted it. His intended audience are younger children who may not be aware of this disease or those that may have been misinformed on the disease. People in a health class may find this information useful, especially teachers, when trying to educate children on this disease and that there are more ways to contract it besides sexual intercourse.

When I ran across this article I was searching for a correlation between teens in the 80’s and AIDS. John Gonzalez was only 18 years old when he passed away from the disease and so was the young man from this article. It isn’t clear from my block how John contracted the disease, but after reading this article it goes to show that there is no one way he could’ve contracted it. This article contributes to the teenage culture that John was apart of, although Ryan White was on a platform, they were both dealing with the same disease overall at such a young age.

AIDS Impact on Police Officers

Boxall, Bettina. “Officer Infected With HIV Is Torn Between Serving and Protecting.” latimes, 11 Mar. 1996.

Bettina Boxall, a 2009 recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for explanatory reporting, asserts that there is a police officer that struggles with the choice of telling his fellow co-workers he is infected or just keeping it a secret. Bettina is giving evidence which is provided through an interview with this officer and she uses this by giving direct quotes from the interview. She is bringing attention to the sudden increase in those affected, while also bringing attention to the fact that he isn’t obligated to tell his fellow officers of his disease by law. She is trying to reach people in the Los Angeles area, maybe speaking to those who may be ignorant to how you can receive the disease and also those thinking that people they work with are obligated to let them know. If there were ever an issue of someone who needed or wanted to know someone’s experience as far as why they struggled with letting their coworkers know they were infected or if someone was doing research on workplace disclosure as far as infections such as HIV/AIDS.

John was apart of this culture, being that he is in this line of force. He was a police officer and he may have dealt with the struggles of not knowing who or even if he should tell anyone of his disease. As stated in the article the epidemic was spreading rapidly in the 1980s and he passed away in 1989. He was apart of the percentage of officers who were in the force and had this disease.


In the description of my block on John R Gonzalez, I made evident the messages around the borders. I describe what is seen on the panel and then I continue to give my inferences about John through the images and words giving on the block. I used descriptive adjectives to describe the object. This is present in my description because these are ways to give others an idea of how I analyzed my block. I may be missing the effect of leaving an image with the readers. So that when others read my description they can create an image in their head. I may also be missing giving a bridge from this work to reality. This is missing because I simply have not given a claim from the real world and also because I haven’t began to start giving readers a complete image of the block once put together. I will now go back and tie in much more imagery to give readers an image in their head when they finish reading my description. I will also try to use things to connect people with this block through my deep description of this block. This will allow readers to relate to this panel and also keep them engaged while reading my description.

AIDS Epidemic- How Did it Impact Chicago?

Kotaluk, Ronald. December 5, 1985. February 13, 2018.

In this article, Pullitzer Prize winning science writer Ronald Kotulak claims that, “By August of 1990, Illinois is expected to have more than 10,000 AIDS victims, requiring extensive medical care that could cost between $500 million and $1.5 billion, according to the Illinois Department of Public Health.” Kotulak uses evidence such as, the number of cases presented to the state and percentages from the coordinator of the health department, the number of patients in Illinois given by the public health director and estimations from the Illinois department of Public Health. It is evident from the title that Kotulak is attempting to inform readers the plan being put in place for the AIDS epidemic, while doing so he is also informing readers on the numbers surrounded around this epidemic in the state of Chicago. The intended audience of this article are the citizens of Chicago concerned with the epidemic, who may be wondering what actions are being put in place. This information could be useful to other states that may not have began to think of there plan for the AIDS epidemic, reading this article could spark some ideas of how they can  begin to work towards some solutions for the epidemic in their state.

The struggle of AIDS in Chicago relates to a cultural trait from my block. Through my block its apparent that John is from Chicago. This ties in with his block because he was a contributing factor to the epidemic that we saw throughout this piece. This culture of how Chicago was impacted during this time and the fact that John was from Chicago  gives light to someone who was apart of this culture.


What is the deeper meaning of this quilt?

  1. How extensively were police departments impacted by AIDS in 1980s? Today?
  2. Significance of Rita Man 87.
  3. Was he a player in the Wilson city wide champs 84?
  4. Are roses apart of a cultural or religious belief?

Keyword Search Terms  

  • Chicago
  • Police department
  • wilson city wide champs ’84
  • fr. van overbeev
  • rita man 87
  • football
  • gay men-aids


Objective descriptions

  • Problems of customers dead; not cared for
  • It isn’t burger king; can’t have it your way
  • “Badass”
  • There are a lot of coffee mugs on the top shelf
  • Customer service is rude, the pictures on the wall indicate this
  • The girl is giving a “dumb look” as stated on the poster
  • Glass against the wall
  • The girl needs to touch up her color
  • Eyebrows are thin
  • No earrings in her ear
  • 89 on their test
  • Cups hanging off the wall
  • Scraps on the wall as if there has been tape pulled off, which has pulled off the paint

Notes. 2/1

Primary source: – Original source. first hand, data authors generate themselves.

Secondary Source: – Depends on how the researcher uses the source…   Reporting someone’s point of view about data already generated.

Describing Something Objectively: -It appears that.. -It looks like…

Summarizing Haltman

In Haltman’s “Introduction to American Artifacts” he gives readers insight on how to give a good investigation analysis.
Describing an image is better than giving your personal interpretation, because when you give your interpretation it does not leave much room for others to give their honest opinion. It becomes easy for others to be bias to your interpretation, rather than giving their own, raw, opinion.

Giving a thorough description of an image leaves room for others to make their own analysis of the work. Your description gives meaning to the work without saying exactly what the work is saying. Everyone sees things with different perspectives, because everyone is simply not the same. The way you may view the world isn’t going to be the exact way the next person sees the world. This is why you use descriptive words rather than “definite” meanings.

You want to use very good verbs, adverbs, nouns, adjectives, etc. because this creates the connection between the work and the viewers.

Once you create this description you then want to talk about it with a superior, then maybe revise your description after some criticism. This will help you become more self-conscious with your perception. You want to use the emotions that these images may bring out. This also serves as a connection between the work and the viewers.

Eventually, you may do research because this gives a more in depth and a more realistic view. You don’t want to give an analysis based off of pure opinion.