Annotated Bibliographies

Gwendolyn Barnhart, a doctoral student claims that, “HIV/AIDS-related stigma exerts a direct negative impact on the health of those who have HIV.” In this paper she gives evidence by using quotes from psychologists and other papers directed towards the topic of AIDS to support her claims. Her purpose in writing this paper, was not only to inform readers of the different stigmas associated with HIV/AIDS but to encourage readers to honor the ones who have passed from this disease “by getting tested, using necessary precautions, and educating ourselves about the facts and not by letting bias, misconceptions, and rumors drive our actions and perceptions.” Her intended audience are well-educated people and those who may be interested in psychology. Psychologist who may have a patient with this disease may find this paper helpful to know the stigmas this person normally faces, so that the psychologist won’t put those same stigmas on him.Image result for magic johnsonCredit:

Throughout Barnhart’s paper she uses examples, such as Ryan White which relates to Gonzalez through their experience with the disease as teenagers. She uses Magic Johnson, which relates to Gonzalez because he was an athlete as well. Seeing these relationships helps me gain some inferences about John Gonzalez. It sheds a new light to me about not who he may have been, but more so what he had been doing.  These different stigmas are things that anyone with HIV/AIDS dealt with. Everyone with the disease are dealing with the same stigmas; together.

Cargill, Victoria A., and Valerie E. Stone. HIV/AIDS: a minority health issue. July 2005.

Victoria A. Cargill  the director of Clinical Studies and Minority Research at National Institutes of Health Office of AIDS Research and Valerie E. Stone, a once director of the Women’s HIV/AID program assert that HIV infection disproportionately affects racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States. They provide readers with evidence that is displayed by giving examples of how HIV has affected these populations and informing readers just through information, there is no quantitative data. The purpose of this paper is to inform readers of the several reasons that minorities are impacted so heavily from this disease, it seems as if they want people to understand that more things go into this disease than people know. This is intended for an educated audience; students doing research, people in the medical field. Researchers who are trying to find specifics in minorities that make them more prone to these diseases or people that are trying to see what all could possibly contribute to contracting this virus may find this interesting, because maybe they want to make sure they aren’t being put in this type of circumstances.

Gonzalez has an origin of latin descent, which in America would be considered a minority. I wanted to see if his race or ethnicity could have been a contributing factor to him having the disease. After finding papers such as this one, I realize that it may have been apart of the reason he passed from HIV. John was born into this world apart of a culture he couldn’t necessarily choose, a minority,and that may have been the very reason he passed.

circa 1989: American AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) activist Ryan White (1971 - 1990). Born with haemophilia he accidentally contracted the AIDS virus during medical treatment. His legal struggle to continue studying at public school made national headlines. Photo by MPI/Getty ImagesCredit: MPI/Getty Images


Markel, Howard. “Remembering Ryan White, the teen who fought against the stigma of AIDS.” 8 Apr. 2016.

Dr. Howard Markel, who is an acclaimed social and cultural historian of medicine, public health, and epidemics, informs readers that there isn’t just one specific group of people or way to contract AIDS by remembering Ryan White. Dr. Howard used things such Ryan’s experience, how Ryan contracted AIDS, and he used his, Dr. Markel, experience as a pediatrician to give more credibility to Ryan’s story. In this article, it is clear that he wants people to  disassociate the disease with specifics, because this is not a disease that discriminates; maybe he wants people to get finished reading this and not judge those who are infected because it’s not always clear how they contracted it. His intended audience are younger children who may not be aware of this disease or those that may have been misinformed on the disease. People in a health class may find this information useful, especially teachers, when trying to educate children on this disease and that there are more ways to contract it besides sexual intercourse.

When I ran across this article I was searching for a correlation between teens in the 80’s and AIDS. John Gonzalez was only 18 years old when he passed away from the disease and so was the young man from this article. It isn’t clear from my block how John contracted the disease, but after reading this article it goes to show that there is no one way he could’ve contracted it. This article contributes to the teenage culture that John was apart of, although Ryan White was on a platform, they were both dealing with the same disease overall at such a young age.


Bettina Boxall, a 2009 recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for explanatory reporting, asserts that there is a police officer that struggles with the choice of telling his fellow co-workers he is infected or just keeping it a secret. Bettina is giving evidence which is provided through an interview with this officer and she uses this by giving direct quotes from the interview. She is bringing attention to the sudden increase in those affected, while also bringing attention to the fact that he isn’t obligated to tell his fellow officers of his disease by law. She is trying to reach people in the Los Angeles area, maybe speaking to those who may be ignorant to how you can receive the disease and also those thinking that people they work with are obligated to let them know. If there were ever an issue of someone who needed or wanted to know someone’s experience as far as why they struggled with letting their coworkers know they were infected or if someone was doing research on workplace disclosure as far as infections such as HIV/AIDS.

John was apart of this culture, being that he is in this line of force. He was a police officer and he may have dealt with the struggles of not knowing who or even if he should tell anyone of his disease. As stated in the article the epidemic was spreading rapidly in the 1980s and he passed away in 1989. He was apart of the percentage of officers who were in the force and had this disease.


Boxall, Bettina. “Officer Infected With HIV Is Torn Between Serving and Protecting.” latimes, 11 Mar. 1996.

Barnhart, Gwendolyn. “The Stigma of HIV/AIDS.” Dec. 2014

Cargill, Victoria A., and Valerie E. Stone. HIV/AIDS: a minority health issue. July 2005.

Markel, Howard. “Remembering Ryan White, the teen who fought against the stigma of AIDS.” 8 Apr. 2016.